31.Thabet,A.A.,  Abed,Y., and  Vostanis,P. Emotional Problems in Palestinian Children Living in a War Zone: A Cross-Sectional Study. Lancet 2002; 359, 9320: 18011804.

This study aimed to assess the nature and severity of emotional problems in Palestinian children whose homes had been bombarded and demolished during the crisis in Palestine, compared with children living in other parts of the Gaza strip. Ninety-one children exposed to home bombardment and emollition during Al Aqsa Intifada and 89 controls who had been exposed to other types of traumatic events related to political violence completed self-report measures of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and fears. Significantly more children exposed to bombardment and home demolition reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress (p=00008) and fear (p=0002) than controls. 54 (59%) of 91 exposed children and 22 (25%) of 89 controls reported post-traumatic stress reactions of clinical importance. Exposure to bombardment was the strongest socioeconomic predictor of post-traumatic stress reactions (odds ratio 025 [95% CI 012053], p=00008). By contrast, children exposed to other events, mainly through the media and adults, reported more anticipatory anxiety and cognitive expressions of distress (p=0001) than children who were directly exposed.